Successful implementations of customer relationship management (CRM) applications have yielded returns ranging from 16% to more than 1,000%. IDC also found that technology-related savings account for only 7% of the average return, while benefits accrued from increased productivity and business process enhancements account for 51% and 42% of the return. 19% of the companies that participated in the study generated an ROI of 50% or less, 52% generated an ROI between 51% and 500%, and 30% reported returns of 501%. 58% of participants experienced payback in one year or less, 35% experienced payback between one and three years, and 8% experienced payback in three years or more. The median initial investment in a CRM application is approximately $426,000, which includes the accumulation of all costs incurred before the CRM implementation enters production at a site. The median total cost over the first five years is estimated at $1.2 million.