A study by the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology found a decline in the share of computer science jobs held by women in a recent 20-year period. In 1983, women held 30.5% of the jobs in the category of computer systems analysts and scientists, programmers and postsecondary computer science teachers, according to the Commission. The figure declined to 27.2% in 2002. 44% of all jobs in the United States were held by women in 1983. By 2003, that level of participation had risen slightly to 47%. The proportion of women in scientific, technological, engineering and mathematical jobs in 1983 ranged from 16% to 19% (depending on how such professions are defined) to 23% to 26% of them in 2002, according to the Commission.