The standard implements new technology to compensate for polarization mode dispersion, a signal distortion problem that typically accompanies higher data rates. Optical networks should experience a four-fold bandwidth increase (from 10 Gbps to 40 Gbps) at just 2.5 times the cost ? the traditional point at which economies of scale in this area make new technologies worth adopting. Gartner believes that it could take until 2H05 for carriers to deploy 40 Gbps in earnest in the core of their networks. Systems based on 40 Gbps per channel for long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) and SONET OC-768 require time to develop. Moreover, demand for such systems today is scant. Nevertheless, carriers’ adoption of big, fast, core IP routers might accelerate the trend for IP over Glass 40 Gbps interfaces without DWDM or SONET system capability.