In a study for the FTTH Council Europe, Idate has identified 167 different fiber deployments. By June 2004 there were about 550,000 subscribers and 2 mln homes passed on FTTx networks ? almost all in Western Europe. The industry is failing to take off. The biggest players are not extending their footprints significantly, and the incumbent telcos are notable for not participating in current FTTx projects to any great extent. The FTTH Council puts much of the blame on the regulatory environment in Europe. Tough rules mean that the incumbents could find they are obliged to share their FTTx infrastructures, if and when they build them, with competitors at uneconomic rates.